Finfish breeding and seed production
- Induced breeding and captive seed production technology for Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) was standardised for the first time and hatchery produced seeds were distributed to farmers for further rearing.
- A breakthrough was achieved in seed production of Mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) in a land based hatchery system for the first time in the country and the hatchery produced seeds were distributed to farmers for grow-out farming.
Shrimp seed productions and farming
- As initial phase of the large-scale domestication and genetic improvement program in native Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus), three domesticated lines (G1, G2, and G3) were developed.
- Conditions and protocols for the mating of indicus under captive conditions have been standardized. Hormonal dosage and administration procedures for inducement of maturation in P. indicus have been achieved by using Artemia as a bio-vehicle.
- Demonstration of winter farming of vannamei at Gujarat has been carried out, and farming guidelines during winter has been framed to suite the agroclimatic conditions of Gujarat region.
Genetics and Biotechnology
- Whole genome assembly of Penaeus indicus: Whole genome of Indian White Shrimp (Penaeus indicus) was assembled using PacBio Sequel II generated sequence data. The genome (1.93 gb) could be assembled in 11171 scaffolds, with N50 value of 34.4 Mb. A circos plot comprising of 6 tracks (scaffold, contigs, genes,CDS (sense and antisense strand), GC content) show the features of Penaeus indicus
Nutrition and Feed Technology
- Black soldier fly larval meal was established as a sustainable alternative to fishmeal in the diet of shrimp feed, in alignment with the GOI “waste to wealth” and “circular economy” concepts.
- High health feed containing functional nutrient to improve the health of hepatopancreas of Penaeid shrimp has been developed.
- Unraveled the potential of C-Phycocyanin, an intense blue pigment extracted from locally isolated Arthrospira maxima to enhance the growth and immunity of Penaeid shrimp.
Aquatic Animal Health
- Economic loss to the Indian shrimp industry due to Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was estimated to be US$ 1.02 billion with an employment loss of 1.65 million man-days annually.
- Experiments revealed that live polychaetes used as a maturation diet for shrimp brooders are passive carriers of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).
- Real time qPCR technique with custom designed primers was standardized for quantification of three closely related pathogenic species of Harveyi clade namely harveyi, V. owensii and V. rotiferianus. The RT PCR assay was found to be highly sensitive, specific and will assist in multiplex RT-PCR assay.
- Challenge experiment conducted to test the interspecies transmission of Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) from infected tilapia to seabass confirming successful transmission of TiLV with cumulative mortalities. Therefore, it is recommended to have stringent biosecurity protocols while handling tilapia (as feed) in seabass fish
- First report on the detection of Amyloodinium ocellatum infestation in streaked spine foot Rabbit fish (Siganus javus). Histopathological observation of gills revealed the presence of trophonts and tomonts with severe damage on the respiratory surface of gills, mild to severe lamellar fusion with infiltrated blood cells. The PCR diagnosis confirmed the parasite as Amyloodinum ocellatum.
- Developed an injectable recombinant protein vaccine for Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) disease in Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer). Effective for immunization of fingerlings and broodstock to prevent vertical transmission of the virus.
Soil and Water quality Management
- Field experiments revealed that environmental stressors, ammonia and salinity in combination posed as high risk factor in shrimp farming resulted in a high shrimp mortality rate (6 to 29 times more risk of dying compared with 1 to 5 times in individual treatments) and susceptible to WSSV disease. The risk factor increased with increasing ammonia and decreasing salinity.
- Revisiting the lime requirement estimation for aquaculture pond soils showed that the exchangeable acidity method exactly estimates the lime requirement of soil, whereas soil-water pH and SMP buffer methods slightly lower and overestimate the lime requirement, respectively. The actual dose of lime material based on effective calcium carbonate equivalent (ECCE) was significant in increasing the pH compared to the calculated dose.
- The effect of varying theoretical C: N ratios with formulated feeds on shrimp showed that the optimum biofloc volume and higher shrimp growth was recorded in 15:1 ratio compared with 20:1 and 10:1.
Social Sciences and Development
- Updation of brackishwater aquaculture database and on-line Aquastat through collection and collation of major data components on various aspects of brackishwater aquaculture viz., Global, Indian and state scenario of brackishwater aquaculture, production and trade statistics etc.
- Prospective impact of Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) related lockdown on shrimp aquaculture sector in India in 2020-2021 showed an economic loss of around Rs.11, 000 crores to the shrimp aquaculture sector. It was projected that shrimp production and its export performance may be declining by 30-40% in the March-June, 2021 season.
- Developed technology for converting fish waste into plankton booster (Planktonplus) and organic manure (CIBA-Hortiplus) as waste to wealth concepts. A Self-Help Group mentored by CIBA at Nambikkai Nagar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, established a fish waste processing unit and earned a revenue of Rs.19 lakhs in 2021. This unit was recognized as the “Best Fisheries Self Help Group 2020” by National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Government of India.
- Under Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiative, with funding support from the Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL), we demonstrated brackishwater aquaculture technologies integrated with other agro-based farming interventions like poultry farming, mushroom farming, kitchen gardening, and fish food processing sales for the socio-economic upliftment of coastal fisher families.
- As part of the 75 years of India’s Independence (Azad Ka Amrit Mahotsav) celebrations under CIBA Tribal Sub-Plan and CIBA-SCSP scheme, community development interventions on ‘Diversification of livelihoods for the coastal Scheduled Tribal and Scheduled Caste families through brackishwater aquaculture technologies integrated with agro-based technologies and societal development activities’ at Lakshimipuram tribal nagar, Kattur and Thonirevu village, Kottaikuppam Panchayat, Pulicat, Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu.